Geographic Distribution Of Major Crops Across The World PDF

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CROPPING INTENSITY IN INDIA

There are only two ways to satisfy the increasing food and other agricultural demands of the country’s rising population: either expanding the net area under cultivation or intensifying cropping over the existing area. The net sown area of the country has risen by about 20 percent since independence and has reached a point where it is not possible to make any appreciable increase. Thus; raising the cropping intensity is the only viable option left.

Cropping intensity refers to raising a number of crops from the same field during one agriculture year. It can be expressed as

Cropping intensity = (Gross cropped area / Net sown area) x 100

Thus, higher cropping intensity means that a higher portion of the net area is being cropped more than once during one agricultural year. This also implies higher productivity per unit of arable land during one agricultural year. For instance, suppose a farmer owns five hectares of land, and gets the crop from these five acres during the Kharif season and, again, during the rabi season he raises a crop from three hectares. He, thus, gets the effective products from eight hectares, although he owns only five hectares physically. Had he raised crop from five hectares totally, his cropping intensity would have been 100 percent, while now it is 160 percent.

According to the data of 1990-91 (latest available), the index of intensity of cropping for the co~try as a whole is 130 percent. It shows great spatial variations with ‘higher levels in northern plains. Punjab has the highest cropping intensity of 176 percent, followed by Himachal Pradesh (169 percent), West Bengal (157 percent), Haryana (145 percent) and Uttar Pradesh (143 percent). The intensity is low in dry, rainfed regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Karnataka (110-125 percent).

Urbanization

Urbanization (or urbanization) refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas. Although the two concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, urbanization should be distinguished from urban growth: urbanization is “the proportion of the total national population living in areas classed as urban”, while urban growth refers to “the absolute number of people living in areas classed as urban”.The United Nations projected that half of the world’s population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized. That is equivalent to approximately 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. Notably, the United Nations has also recently projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be by cities, about 1.1 billion new urbanites over the next 13 years.

Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, geography, sociology, architecture, economics, and public health. The phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time (e.g. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns), or as an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be quantified either in terms of, say, the level of urban development relative to the overall population or as the rate at which the urban proportion of the population is increasing. Urbanization creates enormous social, economic and environmental changes, which provide an opportunity for sustainability with the “potential to use resources more efficiently, to create more sustainable land use and to protect the biodiversity of natural ecosystems.”

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